Non-Treatment; Continued monitoring of Prostate Cancer through PSA blood tests, DREs, and ultrasound scans. Biopsies may be done as well to assess the aggressiveness of the prostate cancer.
Biological substances made in a lab or by the body are used to boost the immune system to enhance the body’s ability to repair itself and prevent the growth and spread of prostate cancer cells. Provenge is the first FDA approved Immunotherapy treatment and vaccine.
Also known as implantation or interstitial radiation therapy, where small radioactive pellets (or “seeds”) the size of a grain of rice are placed directly into the prostate. Permanent Brachytherapy (low dose rate) inserts radioactive (iodine-125 or palladium-103) pellets directly into the prostate with the use of a needle by going through the skin in the area between the anus and the scrotum. These low doses of radiation are release for weeks or months depending on the case. Typically, 40 to 100 of these radioactive seeds are placed and left in the prostate until the radioactive material has been completely dissolved. Temporary Brachytherapy (high dose rate) delivers radioactive iridium-192 or cesium-137 through catheters and are kept in place for 5 to 15 minutes. The radioactive pellets are removed after each treatment and the catheters are removed after the final treatment.
Anti-cancer drugs are taken orally or injected into a vein and enter the bloodstream then spread throughout the body to stop the growth of prostate cancer cells by killing them or restricting their division to other parts of the body.
Also known as cryoablation, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is used to guide multiple needles directly into the prostate through the skin between the anus and scrotum. Extremely cold gases are then sent through the needles, which then create ice balls that freeze and destroy the prostate. Warming catheter is inserted into the urethra to protect it from the freezing temperatures. Spinal, epidural, or general anesthesia is required.
A form of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) that delivers high doses of radiation directly to the cancerous prostate by the use of a robotic arm that moves around the body. Using the guidance of real-time imaging to automatically adjust to the movement of the prostate, the Cyberknife system accurately and continuously targets the prostate during each treatment.
Surgery is performed by a trained and skilled surgeon through the use of a computer-enhanced robotic surgical system positioned near the operating table. The Da Vinci Robotic surgical system is made up of three major components, which include a vision system with high magnification and resolution, robotic arms and instruments, and a console to provide the surgeon with a view of the operative field and control the instruments.
The prostate gland is targeted with beams of radiation (x-rays or proton) from a machine outside of the body. EBRT is a three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) which creates a precise map of the location of your prostate through the use of special computers. Then from several directions, shaped radiation beams are focused at the prostate. A fitted plastic mold will be created to ensure you are in the same position for each treatment session. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) uses a machine that moves around the patient while it targets and delivers radiation. The doctor can adjust the intensity of radiation with this machine. New computer-driven radiation machines have imaging scanners and this form of treatment is called image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT).
Precision-focused ultrasound waves are used to heat and destroy the targeted prostate cancer tissue. It is performed on an outpatient basis and can be repeated as necessary with each treatment taking anywhere from 1 to 3 hours.
Also called ADT, the levels of male hormones (or androgen) are reduced in the body to stop the growth of prostate cancer cells.
Several small incisions are made and the prostate is removed through the use of special long medical instruments. These tools vary in use, as one will have a tiny camera on the end to allow the surgeon to see inside of the abdomen.
An incision is made in the skin between the anus and scrotum (perineum) and the prostate is removed.
An incision is made in the lower abdomen from the belly button to the pubic bone and the entire prostate is removed along with nearby tissues and seminal vesicles. Lymph nodes may also be removed based on the PSA level, DRE, and biopsy results. If cancer cells are found in lymph nodes during surgery, the operation may be cancelled, as surgery alone will not cure the patient. General, spinal, or epidural anesthesia is required.